Relative dating using fossil identification

Some fossils consist only of skeletal remains or teeth; other fossils contain traces of skin, feathers or even soft tissues. In some cases the original remains of the organism completely dissolve or are otherwise destroyed.The remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold.Often what remains is a carbonaceous film known as a phytoleim, in which case the fossil is known as a compression.Often, however, the phytoleim is lost and all that remains is an impression of the organism in the rock—an impression fossil.If this happens rapidly before significant decay to the organic tissue, very fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved.Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization.

An endocast or internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail or the hollow of a skull. If the chemistry is right, the organism (or fragment of organism) can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, resulting in a nodule forming around it.

Replacement occurs when the shell, bone or other tissue is replaced with another mineral.

In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so gradually and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material.

For this reason, one term covers the two modes of preservation: adpression.

Because of their antiquity, an unexpected exception to the alteration of an organism's tissues by chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules during fossilization has been the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, including blood vessels, and the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments.

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