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There is certainly no notion of individual rights, which developed in the West, especially during the eighteenth century.Islam first came before the world as a doubly totalitarian system. Snouck Hurgronje, the great Dutch Orientalist, underscored how the jihad doctrine of world conquest, and the re-creation of a supranational Islamic Caliphate remained a potent force among the Muslim masses:..would be a gross mistake to imagine that the idea of universal conquest may be considered as obliterated..canonists and the vulgar still live in the illusion of the days of Islam's greatness.The legists continue to ground their appreciation of every actual political condition on the law of the holy war, which war ought never be allowed to cease entirely until all mankind is reduced to the authority of Islam-the heathen by conversion, the adherents of acknowledged Scripture [i.e., Jews and Christians] by submission.During his reign, which lasted for a decade (634-644), Syria, Iraq and Egypt were conquered.Umar was responsible for organizing the early Islamic Caliphate.
The individual if necessary has to be sacrificed in order that that the life of the organism be saved.Salient examples from within the past 25 years confirm the persistent absence of freedom of conscience in contemporary Islamic societies, in tragic conformity with a prevailing, unchanged mindset of the earliest Caliphates: the 1985 state-sponsored execution of Sudanese religious reformer Mahmoud Muhammad Taha for his alleged "apostasy"; the infamous 1989 "Salman Rushdie Affair", which resulted in the issuance of a fatwa by Ayatollah Khomeini condemning Rushdie to death; the July 1994 vigilante murder of secular Egyptian writer Farag Foda-supported by the prominent Egyptian cleric, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ghazali, an official of Al Azhar University, who testified on behalf of the murderer, "A secularist represents a danger to society and the nation that must be eliminated.It is the duty of the government to kill him."; and the recent (March, 2006) tragic experience of , an unassuming Afghan Muslim convert to Christianity, forced to flee his native country to escape the murderous wrath of Muslim clerics and the masses they incited in "liberated", post-Taliban Afghanistan. Brohi, former Pakistani Minister of Law and Religious Affairs:[Ibn Khaldun] All religious laws and practices and everything that the masses are expected to do requires group feeling.In this way ‘Umar based that fanatical and intolerant approach that was an essential characteristic of Islam, now extant for over a thousand years, until this day [i.e., written in 1868].It was this spirit, a severe and steely one, that incorporated scorn and contempt for the non-Muslims, that was characteristic of ‘Umar, and instilled by ‘Umar into Islam; this spirit continued for many centuries, to be Islam's driving force and vital principle.